Papillomas are a type of neoplasm that appears on the surface of the skin and mucous membranes. In most cases, the pathology manifests itself in the form of genital warts, which have a pointed shape and flat warts. These growths can appear in any area of the human body. When a pathology arises in the context of human papillomavirus activity, the disease is characterized as oncogenic. This nature is explained by the fact that the risk of degeneration of the malignant tumor is higher than 70%. The topic of this article is what papillomas are and why they appear.
The reason for the appearance of papillomas
The most common reason for the appearance of papillomas is the activity of the HPV virus in the body. This virus enters the body in the context of promiscuous sex or during unprotected sex with an infected person. Much less often, the disease manifests itself in people who abuse alcohol, tobacco and drugs.
It should also be noted that the risk group susceptible to this infection includes people with weakened immunity, metabolic disorders, and problems with the functioning of the organs in the gastrointestinal tract. An important role in the spread of the infection is played by non-compliance with personal hygiene rules.
Important!The virus can be transmitted to a newborn baby if the mother was infected in the last few months of pregnancy.
It is very important to know that the infection is not just transmitted through traditional sexual intercourse. If there is microtrauma in the body of one of the sexual partners that violates the integrity of the skin, the virus can enter the body through them. By becoming infected with HPV, a person becomes a carrier of the virus, as it is impossible to completely remove the infection from the body. All therapies for the disease should aim to strengthen the immune system so that it can deal with the disease on its own.
The development of the disease occurs latently, which indicates that the virus does not manifest itself for a long period. The incubation period can range from a month to a year.
Stages of disease development
Considering the question of why papillomas appear, it must be said that the disease manifests itself only as a result of the decreased performance of the immune system. Once the infection enters the human body, the virus begins to spread to the basal epithelial cells.
In the next stage of development of the infection, several growths are formed on the surface of the skin and on the mucous membranes. These growths can appear not only on the surface of the body, but also on Organs internal organs.
A papilloma is a benign tumor of the epidermis that consists of skin-colored or dark brown, microscopic nodules.
This pathology does not have a uniformly expressed clinical picture. The nature of the symptoms depends on the location of the growths and the type of virus causing changes in the body. The main symptomatology inherent to the activity of HPV infection is the appearance of warts and genital warts. It should also be mentioned that the HPV virus is oncogenic, so it is very important to consult a specialist in a timely manner and start therapy.
Symptoms such as hypothermia, itching and tingling, and scaling are rare. All of these symptoms are characteristic of neoplasms located in parts of the body that are prone to increased friction.
Types of neoplasms
There are five main types of neoplasms: squamous, plantar, pointed, simple, filamentous. Let's look at the reasons for the appearance of papillomas in the body, examining in detail each of the types of neoplasms.
Sharp papillomas (condylomas) appear as a result of HPV virus infection during sexual intercourse. In addition to their basic shape, these bumps on the skin can look like tiny bubbles containing fluid. At a certain stage of development, tumors open on their own, which leads to the formation of watery sores and an unpleasant odor.
This type of neoplasm has the highest degree of oncogenicity. According to statistics, this type of tumor most often degenerates into a tumor of malignant nature. In addition to the unsightly appearance, genital warts can cause great discomfort during intercourse or walking. The main method of treatment for this form of the disease is the removal of the papillomas by cryodestruction.
This type of body formation is considered one of the most common. These papillomas cause discomfort to their owner only in aesthetic terms. This type of growth is almost never accompanied by changes in the patient's well-being. Formations are located in the area of the palms, soles of the feet or the back.
Papillomas do not go away on their own, they can exist for many years without causing anxiety.
In which parts of the body are HPV indicators located?
Tumors formed due to human papillomavirus activity can form anywhere in the human body. However, most often neoplasms occur in areas of the body such as:
- tongue and throat;
- mammary gland.
In a severe form of the disease, papillomas can form in the genitourinary system and in the urethra itself.
Papillomas in the area of the breast ducts
Intraductal neoplasm is a tumor that forms in the lactic duct. The formation of a tumor is accompanied by redness of the nipples, appearance of mild itching and burning, in addition to other negative manifestations. At certain stages in the development of the condition, the patient may experience severe pain with any touch to the affected area of the body. Subsequently, in the affected area, a secretion of various colors, with an unpleasant odor, appears.
A tumor detected early does not pose a health hazard. However, prolonged delay in therapy can lead to the fact that the intraductal neoplasm degenerates into a malignant tumor. This rebirth is a dangerously high risk of developing breast cancer.
This growth is shaped like a nipple and resembles a small process. The color of the lump itself can differ significantly from the basic skin tone. Many people wonder why papillomas appear in the area of the mammary glands. Among the most common reasons for the emergence of this pathology, specialists identify the influence of infectious diseases of a chronic nature, metabolic disorders or ovarian disorders. In addition, the reasons for the appearance of intraductal tumors can be: decreased immunity or abortion procedure.
The risk group susceptible to this disease includes women with bad habits as well as girls who have a promiscuous sex life.
Papillomas in the throat
This type of neoplasm forms on the surface of the laryngeal mucous membranes. The development of the disease occurs latently, that is, the patient does not feel any negative changes in the body. Very rarely, the early stages of papilloma formation are accompanied by a feeling of discomfort.
However, at a certain stage of the development of the pathology, the patient begins to experience difficulty breathing, feel a foreign body in the throat and feel pain. An increase in the affected area can lead to changes in voice and breathing patterns. There are several specific reasons for the development of this form of the disease. The main reason is the presence of chronic diseases, as well as acute infectious diseases suffered in childhood.
A significant role in the formation of this type of papillomas is played by alcohol, tobacco and drug abuse. Furthermore, neoplasms can arise as a result of frequent changes in sexual partners and refusal to use barrier contraceptive methods.
Infection with this type of virus can occur while visiting the swimming pool, spa and other public places. It is very important that the main component of the development of the pathology is a weakened immune system, which is unable to resist virus activity.
An integrated approach is used to treat this form of pathology. In the first phase of therapy, it is necessary to undergo a procedure to remove the growths. Then, the treating physician should prescribe the ingestion of antivirals in order to prevent the disease from relapse. Also at this stage of therapy, it is important to pay attention to strengthening the immune system with vitamins and immunomodulators.
Papillomas in the cervical region
Talking about what a papilloma is and how it is, one must pay attention to this type of neoplasm. This type of verrucous growth has jagged edges. The growths are located on the surface of the mucous membranes of the uterus. Like genital warts, this type of neoplasm has a high degree of oncogenicity. Lack of timely therapy can lead to the development of cancer.
The main reasons for the development of this pathology are hidden in weak immunity, non-compliance with hygiene rules, bad habits and promiscuous sexual relations. The most common cause of papillomas is unprotected contact with an active carrier of the HPV virus.
Symptoms of disease development are expressed in an increase in regional lymph nodes. Also, many patients are concerned about a burning sensation in the groin area. In the context of the development of papillomas, there is a discharge of an atypical color, with an unpleasant odor. To get rid of this type of tumor, you will need to go through the procedure of removing the files. Also, to prevent a relapse of the disease, a long course of treatment with antiviral drugs will be needed.
Important!Genital neoplasms can occur in women and men. The main difference between this disease in men and women is that papillomas in men rarely degenerate into a malignant tumor. If one partner has HPV infection, both partners should receive antiviral treatment.
Papillomas in the oral cavity
Papillomas in the tongue area take the form of papillary processes with a diameter of several centimeters. The reason for the manifestation of this category of growths is the close contact with the bearer of the infection. However, infection can also occur at home.
Household transmission is most commonly seen in young children. At this stage of life, children learn about the world around them with the help of touch. As childhood immunity is not yet sufficiently developed, the virus easily enters the body.
You can become infected with someone else's towel, bedding, gloves, and shaving accessories.
Now is the time to consider how to treat papillomas on the body. The method of therapy depends on the location of the growths, the depth of the lesion and the nature of the disease. The first step in treatment is to remove existing neoplasms. The cryodestruction method is most often used for this purpose.
Today, more and more specialists recommend the technique of radio wave surgery to their patients. This method is completely painless and allows you to remove tumors without leaving visible marks. Radio waves affect not only the process itself, but also its root, which makes it possible to guarantee the prevention of relapses.
Additionally, papillomas are removed by the method of excision, laser exposure and current pulse therapy. If the tumor is not prone to degeneration into a cancerous tumor, external medications can be used.
It is only possible to use potent antiviral drugs after the aetiology of the disease has been identified and the exact type of virus established. Using creams and ointments at the early stage of disease formation allows you to achieve a lasting result on your own.
HPV virus therapy must necessarily be comprehensive. Immunomodulators, vitamins and antiviral agents prevent the development of relapses. Timely detection of the pathology will avoid serious complications, in the form of degeneration of tumors into a cancerous tumor.