Papilloma in the human body

More than 60% of the world's population are considered to be carriers of human papillomavirus infection. It is mainly transmitted by contact. Human papillomavirus (HPV) against the background of a weakened immune system manifests itself in the form of characteristic neoplasms on the skin or mucous membranes. In rare cases, cells from such growths degenerate into malignant ones.

what is HPV

Human papillomavirus is one of the types of infectious pathology that causes the appearance of neoplasms in the body. The growths are formed from epithelial tissue. The virus infects the body of people of any age and sex.

HPV can be contracted through contact with an infected person, through the use of household items, in utero, intrapartum.

For the prevention of HPV, a vaccine is given before the start of sexual activity; in adulthood, control of sexual activity and personal hygiene are indicated.

For treatment, antiviral and immunomodulatory drugs are prescribed; existing skin growths are removed.

There are over 100 types of HPV. Most viruses do not pose a threat to human life and health. It exclusively affects the basal layer of the dermis. Entering the human body, HPV stops cell division, which leads to the appearance of warts.

When HPV is infected, the main thing is to determine the type of virus, since non-oncogenic strains do not pose any danger to humans, they only spoil the appearance when, when activated, they lead to the formation of papillomas in the body.

Oncogenic pathogens are dangerous for the development of malignant neoplasms.

The only way to not get infected with this papillomavirus and prevent cervical cancer is vaccination.

The vaccine is given to girls and young girls before the start of sexual activity.

Oncogenic viruses are viruses that infect the genitals in women or men. In the first, the papillomavirus, which manifests itself in the form of genital warts, causes cervical cancer or causes the appearance of a malignant tumor in the uterus.


According to statistics, the incidence of HPV in the world is diagnosed in 15-50 people per 100 thousand of the population. About 60% of people are carriers of the virus. 30% of those infected do not even suspect they have a dangerous disease.

Young people aged 18 to 28 are more likely to be affected by a viral infection. Adolescents represent about 82% of active sexual life.

In 93% of confirmed cancer cases affecting the anus or genitals, the papillomavirus is detected. In addition, in 60% of situations, infection occurs through accidental sexual contact.

HPV type 16 causes cancer in 41-54% of people.

Furthermore, statistics confirm that 90% of women may have active HPV, but cervical cancer is diagnosed in only 20% of patients after 5 years.

In 90% of the population with papillomavirus, 11 and 6 species are detected, which are included in the low-risk group.

In addition, in about 95% of situations, experts observe the independent elimination of the virus from the body for about 2 years.


Papillomavirus manifests itself in the body in cases where exposure to external or internal factors has led to a decrease in immunity. The nature of the clinical picture during HPV infection depends on the strain of the latter and the location of the neoplasms.

Among the common forms of papillomavirus, genital warts stand out. It is distinguished by the following characteristics:

  • pale pink color;
  • the presence of a thin leg, with which the condyloma is attached to the body.

In case of manifestation of condylomas, a liquid with an unpleasant odor is secreted. Neoplasms of this type grow painlessly.

The main area where genital warts are located is the perineum. With lesions of Organs genitals, patients are worried about itching and burning.

Infection of the mucous membrane of the larynx leads to the appearance of flat papillomas on its surface. The development of this form of pathology is accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • difficult breathing;
  • problems with swallowing;
  • hoarse voice;
  • persistent cough.

Papillomas located on the mucous membrane of the larynx are prone to rapid growth, which causes asphyxia (suffocation).

Viral infection also manifests itself in the form of:

  1. common warts. It occurs due to lack of hygiene. The body often suppresses the activity of this type of virus on its own.
  2. flat warts. The growths are small neoplasms with a diameter of up to 3 mm. Most often located in front of the head.

Type 18 papilloma virus is considered dangerous. It develops on the genitals of men and women, causing the appearance of many neoplasms on the surface of the mucous membrane.

The causative agent of this type, against the background of weakened immunity, quickly spreads throughout the body, affecting internal structures. In addition, HPV 18 is prone to malignancy.

The defeat of the female genital organs with the papillomavirus causes the appearance of bleeding that is not associated with menstruation. The infection often penetrates the uterine cavity and contributes to the degeneration of local cells. Approximately 98% of women with cancer of Organs reproductive organs develop a malignant tumor due to exposure to HPV.

how is it transmitted

Papillomavirus infection occurs in the following ways:

  1. Throughhousehold items. The use of combs, towels, slippers, or clothing from a person with the infection contributes to the spread of the papillomavirus.
  2. At thedirect contact. This also applies to cases of sexual intimacy. The possibility of infection remains even with the use of condoms.
  3. Autoinfection. The virus is transported from one part of the body to another.
  4. from mother to sonthrough the placenta.

The virus enters the body through open wounds, mucous membranes. However, infection does not always occur.

Strong immunity suppresses the infection, preventing it from spreading throughout the body.

The risk zone for the development of papillomas on the body includes people diagnosed with:

  • Hormonal imbalance;
  • endocrine pathologies;
  • chronic or acute diseases of internal organs;
  • vitamin deficiency;
  • pregnancy.

Mental or physical overwork, severe stress also contribute to a decrease in immunity, which increases the likelihood of papillomavirus infection.

how to get rid

Human papillomavirus has a specific clinical picture. Therefore, treatment is usually prescribed solely on the basis of the results of an external examination of the problem area.

The need for additional tests arises when there is a suspicion of a malignant nature of the tumor, as well as to differentiate HPV from secondary syphilis.

Papillomavirus diagnosis by the following methods:

  • to studybiological secretthe patient;
  • colposcopy(used for injuries of female genital organs);
  • cytological andhistological analysismaterial taken from the surface of the condyloma;
  • polymerase methodChain reaction, which allows detecting the presence of HPV in the patient's body;
  • methodhybridization, with the help of which the level of oncogenicity of the tumor cells is determined.

HPV is not "afraid" of the action of modern antiviral drugs. Therefore, the goal of treatment is to eliminate the external signs of infection.

Conservative therapy is prescribed if:

  • no genital warts;
  • the color and size of the papilloma remain unchanged;
  • the number of growths does not increase.

It is recommended to fight the manifestations of the virus with the help of topical preparations.

Simultaneously with local treatment of warts, it is recommended to strengthen the immune system. For this, immunomodulators or vitamin complexes are suitable.

In relation to genital warts and papillomas, which are prone to rebirth, other manipulations are carried out:

  1. laser coagulation. The method is considered harmless to the organism. The laser beam, narrowly focused on the papilloma, burns its tissues in layers. After the procedure, bleeding and other unpleasant phenomena do not occur in the treatment area.
  2. cryodestruction. The procedure involves treating neoplasms with liquid nitrogen. The substance freezes the growing tissue and the papilloma falls off.
  3. surgical removal. It is performed in cases where a high oncogenicity of the neoplasm is diagnosed.

The human papillomavirus often poses no threat. It causes the appearance of warts and other neoplasms on the body. Some of these growths are prone to regrowth, so patients with these papillomas should be regularly examined by a doctor.