Papillomas are benign neoplasms located on the skin and mucous membranes. They arise from the activation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) and are of many different types. Some of them are harmless and create only a cosmetic defect, others are potentially dangerous and can develop into a cancerous tumor.
The mechanism of origin of papillomas
The appearance of a specific type of cancer depends on the type of virus the person is sick with. Distinguish between low oncogenic strains, in which growths do not pose a great danger to the carrier, and highly oncogenic strains. Neoplasms arise due to the papillomavirus, whose action leads to an excessive cell division, with which growth grows gradually.
"Safe" papillomas usually occur on the skin, while the most alarming ones are located on the mucous membranes.These neoplasms usually cause highly oncogenic types of the virus. For women, the appearance of growths in the genital area can be dangerous for cervical cancer.
Common papillomas (warts)
One of the most common manifestations of HPV, popularly known as "warts". Its appearance is usually due to the action of low oncogenic strains, transmitted by contact and daily life.
Warts usually occur on the fingers, palms, soles or feet.
Externally, they look like small papillary neoplasms with homogeneous structures. Common papillomas are soft to the touch, in the beginning of the disease their pigmentation is weak: the color practically does not differ from the body color.
However, as the disease progresses, growth grows and begins to darken. Sometimes hair can grow in the center of the wart.
This type of papilloma has this name because of the small legs, due to which the neoplasm protrudes above the surface of the skin. The growth is distinguished by an elongated shape and is about 5 mm in size. Most of the time, papillomas are located in places where the thinner skin is:
- ; neck
- groin area;
Filamentous papillomas are more common in patients over the age of 45, but sometimes occur in young people.Growths tend to get bigger as the disease progresses.Gradually, they start to stretch more.
The head of the papillomas is yellow or pink, there is no pronounced pigmentation. A keratinized neoplasm is rarely found. With trauma, pain is not observed. Several others may appear at the site of the damaged filiform papilloma. If the growths are located on the face, it is recommended to stop using scrubs or brushes. In the underarm area, papillomas are also usually injured by razor blades, which can adversely affect the patient's health.
This form of papillomas is also located on the skin and resembles small plaques. Flat papillomas have a yellowish hue, the size does not exceed 1-2 mm. In the structure, the growths are dense, its root is located under the skin. Because of this, at the time of damage or pressure, pain can occur. In addition, this structural feature sometimes leaves scars after removing the buildup.
Typical symptoms that accompany the appearance of flat papillomas:
- redness of the skin around the tumor;
- pain to the touch; inflammation
Tumors usually appear on the face or hands, but sometimes on Organs genitals. In women, they are usually located on the labia majora, in men, in the scrotum or anus. Flat papillomas rapidly increase in size and bleed when traumatized.
These growths are usually located in the groin or mucous membranes. They are caused only by strains of HPV that occur during unprotected sex. Most of the time, they access:
- area of the anus;
The growths are similar to thin papillae, they are small - 2-3 mm. Usually, the virus is not limited to the appearance of a single neoplasm. Warts are characterized by the appearance of several growths at once, gradually merging with each other. Neoplasms grow rapidly in size and growth. At this time, its shape begins to resemble cauliflower inflorescences.
Genital warts are considered one of the most dangerous types of papillomas.In addition to the fact that it is these growths that can degenerate into a malignant tumor, an infection usually joins them. In addition, neoplasms are subject to recurrences after removal, so patients will have to undergo regular tests to check the HPV concentration.
In rare cases, condylomata can form in internal organs, such as the walls of the stomach or rectum. In this case, it is impossible to diagnose the presence of a neoplasm on your own. The lack of specific symptoms can become a problem in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.
A very rare type of papilloma. Most of the time, they occur in the feet and hands. A distinctive feature of the consequences is the uneven edges. They are usually brown in color, but can sometimes have a dark red tint. This form of the disease can also contribute to the degeneration of malignant neoplasms, so patients should see a doctor as soon as possible.
These growths are more typical in children and adolescents, rarely occurring in adulthood. It is considered a common body reaction to decreased immunity, accompanied by trauma to the sole due to footwear discomfort. Unlike common calluses, the wart is rough and has uneven edges. In addition, the skin pattern is clearly visible in the callus.
Plantar warts are characterized by a small spot on the skin surface and a large base that grows subcutaneously. It is usually completely keratinized due to constant abrasion when walking. Over time, growth increases, squeezing or touching causes discomfort and pain.
Due to the nature of the structure, the wart is difficult to remove from the skin, as most of it is located inside. Therefore, after removal, it is often necessary to apply stitches, and a scar may remain at the procedure site.
Most infections occur in children under 5 years of age, as the infection usually occurs during childbirth. If a pregnant woman has papillomavirus and has genital warts in the vaginal area, the child is very likely to be infected.
Juvenile papillomas located on the skin are not dangerous. However, they can also be located in the larynx, which can make it difficult for the baby to breathe. In the initial stage, no signs of the disease are observed. After a while, the following symptoms appear:
- feeling of a lump in the throat;
- difficulty swallowing saliva or food;
- impaired respiratory function.
In older children, changes in the voice may occur, which is a characteristic sign of ligament injury. Papillomas can grow and cause asthma attacks, which one day can result in a complete stop of breathing.
Papillomatosis is a condition in which the number of neoplasms increases dramatically and spreads throughout the body. It is also called generalized papillomavirus. Usually, a large accumulation of papillomas occurs on the hands, face and genital area. Papillomatosis, which occurs in the area of mucous membranes or internal organs, is potentially dangerous for humans.
More often, papillomatosis is mentioned when juvenile papillomas appear in the region of the larynx. They are the ones that tend to grow too much.
Although there are relatively safe forms of papillomas, each needs to be examined regularly by a specialist. This will help to keep your growth under control and remove them immediately, if necessary. In addition, it is important to remember that the presence of neoplasms is an indicator of papillomavirus infection, which also requires timely therapy.